A number of tests are available for the Standard Poodle. Two or more of these tests purchased as part of this bundle will be discounted.
- Chondrodysplasia (CDPA) associated with the FGF4 -18 retrogene insertion
- Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) with risk of IVDD associated with the FGF4-12 retrogene insertion.
- Day Blindness/Retinal Degeneration (DB/RD)
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy associated with the PRCD gene
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy associated with the RCD4 gene
- Degenerative Myelopathy associated with the SOD1 gene
- Von Willebrand Disease Type I associated with the VWD gene
Chondrodysplasia (CDPA) is shortened long bones, resulting in dogs with short legs.
A partial copy of the FGF4 gene has been inserted (FGF4-18, a retrogene insertion) on chromosome 18 and is associated with CDPA. Evidence that suggests that any dog with one or two copies of FGF4-18 will have short legs. Unlike CDDY, CDPA is not associated with any disease.
Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) with risk of IVDD
Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) in dogs is defined by dysplastic (abnormal), shorted long bones (short legs) and premature degeneration and calcification of intervertebral discs. Chondrodystrophic breeds are prone to a type of disc degeneration called chondroid metaplasia, where the discs become hardened and less able to flex with movement and therefore more prone to bulging or rupture i.e. Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD). The calcified inner disc material also puts pressure on the spinal cord, causing pain and damage to the nerves running through the spinal cord. Dogs may suffer from severe pain, inability to urinate or defecate, paralysis and even death. Many affected dogs are treated by surgically removing the prolapsed disc.
A partial copy of the FGF4 gene has been inserted (FGF4-12, a retrogene insertion) on chromosome 12 and is associated with CDDY. Evidence that suggests that any dog with one or two copies of FGF4-12 will be affected with CDDY, will have short legs and will be predisposed to IVDD. However, not all dogs with FGF4-12 will go on to develop IVDD.
Day Blindness/Retinal Degeneration (DB/RD)
Day blindness, also known as achromatopsia, is characterised by a failure of cone cells in the retina to function properly. Cone cells are responsible for vision in bright light conditions and thus affected puppies have signs of poor vision in bright light but initially retain normal vision in low light levels.
Affected dogs lose vison in bright light conditions. However, unlike other forms of day blindness in other breeds, the DB/RD mutation eventually leads to a complete retinal degeneration and ultimately causes vision loss under all lighting conditions. Day blindness is present in puppyhood and general retinal degeneration develops around 4-5 years of age.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRCD)
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Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is the most common form of inherited disease affecting the retina in dogs. Genetically different forms of PRA, caused by mutations in different genes, affect many breeds of dog with each form usually affecting one or a small number of breeds. PRA is characterised by progressive degeneration of the retina at the back of the eye and leads to vision loss and blindness.
Progressive Rod Cone Degeneration (PRCD) is a form of PRA and was one of the first PRAs for which a genetic variant was identified. PRCD is different than most forms of PRA in that the variant has been found in a large number and diverse range of breeds.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (RCD4)
The average age of onset of clinical signs is quite late, around 10 years, but can be anything between 5 and 12 years. In humans, mutations in PCARE are associated with a condition known as Retinitis Pigmentosa, symptoms of which include loss of peripheral vision and the ability to see at night. There is no cure for this form of PRA, but using the DNA test to identify dogs that carry the mutation in PCARE will prevent further spread of this blinding condition in this lovely breed.
Important: Degenerative Myelopathy is a rare disease that presents most commonly in German Shepherd Dogs and Boxers, sporadically in Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Cardigan Welsh Corgis, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Borzoi and Chesapeake Bay Retrievers. It is rarely diagnosed in other breeds or mixed-breed dogs. DM is considered genetically complex and will have more than one contributing genetic variant. The variant targeted by this test is widespread and found in more than 120 breeds. However, association of the variant with the disease has only been shown in very few breeds and should never be used to inform breeding decisions, except where close relatives have been clinically diagnosed.
Canine degenerative myelopathy (previously also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy) is a progressive disease of the spinal cord in older dogs. Most dogs are at least 8 years old before clinical become apparent. DM usually starts with a muscle weakness, loss of muscle and loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs. Progression is generally quote slow, but dogs will eventually be crippled within approximately 3 years of the onset of disease.
Von Willebrand Disease Type I
Von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by lack of von Willebrand factor protein (vWF). This protein circulates in the blood stream and must be present at the site of blood vessel injury in order to control bleeding from that vessel. Clinical signs of vWD ranged from mild to severe bleeding tendency.
There are three forms of vWD (types 1, 2 and 3) that are defined by the quantity and structure of VWF in the blood plasma. Type 1 is characterised by a low concentration of vWF, but it has a normal structure and clinical severity of the disease is variable. These dogs are unlikely to bleed spontaneously but may be prone to excessive bleeding when undergoing surgery or in injured.