A number of tests are available for the White Swiss Shepherd. Two or more of these tests purchased as part of this bundle will be discounted.
- Degenerative Myelopathy associated with the SOD1 gene
- Hyperuricosuria associated with the SLC2A9 gene
- Multi-Drug Resistance associated with the ABCB1 gene
- Von Willebrand Disease Type I associated with the VWD gene
Important: Degenerative Myelopathy is a rare disease that presents most commonly in German Shepherd Dogs and Boxers, sporadically in Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Cardigan Welsh Corgis, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Borzoi and Chesapeake Bay Retrievers. It is rarely diagnosed in other breeds or mixed-breed dogs. DM is considered genetically complex and will have more than one contributing genetic variant. The variant targeted by this test is widespread and found in more than 120 breeds. However, association of the variant with the disease has only been shown in very few breeds and should never be used to inform breeding decisions, except where close relatives have been clinically diagnosed.
Canine degenerative myelopathy (previously also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy) is a progressive disease of the spinal cord in older dogs. Most dogs are at least 8 years old before clinical become apparent. DM usually starts with a muscle weakness, loss of muscle and loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs. Progression is generally quote slow, but dogs will eventually be crippled within approximately 3 years of the onset of disease.
The SLC2A9 gene codes for a protein that allows the kidneys to transport uric acid from the urine. Dogs with mutations in both copies of the SLC2A9 gene are predisposed to have elevated levels of uric acid in the urine, hence the name hyperuricosuria. Dogs with hyperuricosuria most commonly present with symptoms of recurrent urinary tract inflammation, which include frequent urination, blood in the urine, and straining to urinate. They may also have loss of appetite, lethargy, weakness, vomiting and pain. Urinary stones in the bladder can cause urinary tract infections or more seriously, blockage of the Urethra.
In certain breeds a mutation on the ABCB1 gene, which encodes the MDR1 protein (which stands for Multi Drug Resistance 1) can cause animals that carry the mutation to be particularly sensitive to certain drugs. The variant was first detected in a subpopulation of dogs that were highly sensitive to Ivermectin-induced neurotoxicity. The variant on the ABCB1 gene results in the brain being unable to efficiently pump some drugs out, causing a toxic build-up of these drugs in the brain. Dogs subsequently experience and range of symptoms from vomiting and diarrhea to lethargy, seizures, or coma.
Von Willebrand Disease Type I
Von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by lack of von Willebrand factor protein (vWF). This protein circulates in the blood stream and must be present at the site of blood vessel injury in order to control bleeding from that vessel. Clinical signs of vWD ranged from mild to severe bleeding tendency.
There are three forms of vWD (types 1, 2 and 3) that are defined by the quantity and structure of VWF in the blood plasma. Type 1 is characterised by a low concentration of vWF, but it has a normal structure and clinical severity of the disease is variable. These dogs are unlikely to bleed spontaneously but may be prone to excessive bleeding when undergoing surgery or in injured.